Clinching, also known as press joining, is a process (bulk-sheet metal-forming) which aims to join thin sheets of metal without involvement of additional components such as bolts, rivets, nuts and screws and uses special tools to form an interlocking system between two or more sheets. This process has no temperature requirements as such and can be carried out at room temperatures; however, in some cases, the sheets to be interlocked can be heater prior to the process in order to improve the ductility of the material. The technology of clinching is a result of the advent and development of industrial engineering. A dye and a punch are the tools used in clinching.
The intensity of pressure coupled with shape of the clinching tool helps to determine the mechanical interlock of the materials. Clinching machines are appropriate to fasten a wide range of ductile material like low carbon steels, aluminium alloys, copper. Their suitability also extends to materials such as magnesium alloys, titanium alloys, high strength steel and also polymers, wood and metal hybrids and so on. It can also be applied on metals with their surfaces coated, for example, plastic-coated, galvanized metal sheets and pre-painted metal. Clinching machines are used in automotive and transport industry, electronic industry, agricultural equipment, medical engineering, construction and civil industry and appliance industry, replacing spot welding.
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There are two types of clinching machines – Large floor mounted machines (the parts are brought to the machine for clinching) and Small portable clinching machines (where the machines can be taken to the parts).
Global Clinching Machines Market: Drivers
The clinching machine market is driven by factors that reflect the plusses of the clinching technology and its applications in various fields. Clinching is better than welding. It does not require electricity or electrode cooling as in welding, thereby reducing costs involved. It can be used on a wide range of material. There is no generation of fumes or sparks, thereby highlighting the safety aspect. The clinched interlocks have higher fatigue life as compared to other systems such as welding and adhesive joining. It is an instant process, reducing the time involved to carry out the process.
The joints are not affected by changes in environmental agents. Clinching doesn’t require additional components to carry out the process and it involves low energy consumption. The clinching machines have low initial costs and quick recovery of the costs incurred as profits are high owing to less or zero wastage of material. Moreover, technology plays a vital role which allows developments in machinery and clinching is no exception. The use of clinching machines is increasing owing to the expansion of industries such as automotive, house hold appliances, medical engineering and construction.
Global Clinching Machines Market: Restraints
Clinching can fail due to various reasons such as incorrect die, incorrect punch and brittle material. The choice of clinching machines depends upon the material involved and the challenge faced is the availability of the needed specifications of the machine – die shallowness and depth, punch size etc. the machines must be well made and they should resist deflection. Clinching works best for two surfaces with similar dimensions; it is not useful when two or more material with different dimensions are concerned. It does not produce smooth and flat joint. Clinching cannot be used in case of pure plastics.
Global Clinching Machines Market: Trends in Clinching Machines
Continuous research and development has been carried out with respect to clinching, its tools and machines involved in clinching. New developments owing to improved technology have been carried out in clinching, for example a modular and cost effective clinching system has been developed which allows the machine to produce 10 -20 or even more clinches simultaneously at one time. Option of multiple clinching is thereby available. Another development is the use of special computerised lever system which generates the power needed for the clinching purpose based on the material. This eliminates the limitations of traditional clinching machines such as poor clinch, incorrect die and punch and imparts appropriate strength to the clinch.
Global Clinching Machines Market: Manufacturers of Clinching Machines
There are several companies that manufacture clinching machines, tools and accessories. Few of them are Jurado Clinching Tools, Bollhoff Group, Norlok Technology Inc., and Orbital Systems pvt. Ltd.